De Soto, ND, MS Naturopathic Perspective Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium responsible for causing pertussis infection and illness, has received much research and media attention lately, as rates of infection resurge. This article will discuss the history of vaccine development and the many factors contributing to the observed resurgence. There is wide recognition that the most effective solution would be a new vaccine that confers better protection.
We have long promoted what we see as a necessary distinction between complementary and alternative therapies, despite the acronymic The resurgence of cam theraphy, and the viability of a newer term, integrative oncology.
Complementary therapies are used as adjuncts to mainstream cancer care.
They are supportive measures that control symptoms, enhance well-being, and contribute to overall patient care. Alternative therapies typically are promoted for use instead of mainstream treatment. This is especially problematic in oncology, when delayed treatment can diminish the possibility of remission and cure.
Moreover, interventions sold as literal alternatives to chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy tend to be biologically active, potentially harmful, and extremely costly.
Over time, some complementary therapies are proven safe and effective. These become integrated into mainstream care, producing integrative oncology, a synthesis of the best of mainstream cancer treatment and rational, data-based, adjunctive complementary therapies.
Such integration is evolving. The very term applied to the program at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Integrative Medicine Service and similar titles applied to related programs in North America, the United Kingdom, and Europe, suggest that complementary therapies are being brought into mainstream medicine, including cancer care.
Integration varies from country to country, as does the quality of therapies offered. Virtually all studies conducted to date of cancer patients and of the general public internationally show that those who seek CAM therapies tend to be better educated, of higher socioeconomic status, female, and younger than those who do not.
Typically, they are more health conscious and utilize more mainstream medical services than do people who do not use CAM. There is some indication of growth in CAM use by cancer patients in recent years [ 7 ]. It is likely that this reflects expanded numbers of over-the-counter remedies as well as their ready availability.
A recent study found the three most commonly used therapies to be spiritual healing or prayer Although, in some cases, use of CAM was seen as a marker of greater psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life [ 910 ], patients say they use CAM to improve physiologic and psychosocial well-being, because they value the closer relationships possible with CAM practitioners, and because they want more control and greater responsibility for self-care [ 11 ].
CAM Practitioners Major categories of CAM practitioners outside of mainstream medicine include chiropractors, naturopaths, and acupuncturists.
Acupuncturists often practice a broader range of traditional Chinese medicine involving herbal remedies [ 12 — 14 ]. The professions of massage therapy, music therapy, and mind-body therapies also have skilled practitioners [ 15 ].
Chiropractors, naturopathic doctors, and acupuncturists must complete several years of training and pass standardized national examinations in order to practice in the states that license these practitioners [ 16 — 18 ].
Many states allow physicians to practice acupuncture with little or no training, although states increasingly require national accreditation and an associated specified length of training [ 18 ].
An organization representing only acupuncturists with a medical doctor M. This organization, the American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, has grown to more than 1, members. At the institutional level, numerous hospitals and medical centers have developed research and programs in CAM.
Cancer programs as well as many comprehensive cancer centers have or are creating programs of varying complexity. It was estimated that visits to CAM practitioners increased from million in to million inexceeding visits to all U.
These data back a conservative estimate of total U. It is estimated that sales of dietary supplements have more than doubled since the passage of the law. A lobbying effort is under way to provide more government protection concerning the safety and efficacy of these readily available products, many of which are contaminated or dangerous see later sections of this chapter.
The food supplement industry continues to oppose these efforts. Information about CAM is readily available on the internet. It is difficult, if not impossible, for most readers to distinguish between reputable sources of information and promotions of unproven alternatives pushed by vested interests.
Currently popular therapies within each of these categories are discussed below. Many of these approaches are unproven methods promoted as alternatives to mainstream cancer treatment.
Helpful complementary or adjunctive therapies are discussed in a following section. Traditional Medical Systems These complete systems of theory and practice were developed by ancient cultures and remain essentially intact.
A common feature across alternative medical systems is an emphasis on working with internal natural forces to achieve a harmonic state of mind and body. Although this concept has great appeal to many members of the general public, the underlying assumptions concerning human physiology and disease are outmoded and inconsistent with current scientific understanding.
Any imbalance between opposing forces, such as yin-yang, heat-cold, dampness-dryness, or disruption in the circulation of Chi or Qi, meaning life energy or vital force, produces illness. Diagnostic techniques include examination of complexion and tongue coating, detection of distinctive scents in bodily materials, and palpation of the radial pulse for its speed and tactile characteristics.
This information is matched to specific patterns of signs and symptoms to provide a TCM diagnosis e. Treatment is then geared to correcting imbalances or disruptions, primarily with herbal formulas or acupuncture.
Hundreds of botanical, animal, and mineral preparations were categorized in traditional Chinese pharmacopoeias starting millennia ago.According to a recent article/program on Frontline, the recent resurgence of interest in CAM is but the latest of 3 separate cycles of interest within the last years, with the first being in the mids and the second in the early s.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] Definition: CAM includes a diverse range of medicines and therapies that are not considered to be core conventional medicine practices or core conventional allied health practices.
Many cancer patients use complementary and alternative therapies [9, –]. Patients appear increasingly willing to discuss the use of these remedies, especially when asked by their oncologists.
Patients appear increasingly willing to discuss the use of these remedies, especially when asked by . The resurgence of CAM has been brought about mainly through people's personal choice for CAM therapies and distrust in orthodox medicine.
This essay will discuss how this change has come about through historical factors and social change which link 'consumerism' the growth of particular pro.
The term complementary and alternative medicine 1 (CAM) is used to encompass a broad range of healing modalities.
The use of alternative therapies in the United States varies considerably among cultures. For example, 50% to 90% of Hispanics use a wide range of complementary and alternative therapies, including several that may be unfamiliar to healthcare practitioners (Ortiz et al ).