These early entertainments blended the traditions of French ballet, acrobatics, and dramatic interludes. It was later described as a combination of French Romantic ballet and German melodramaand it attracted patrons of opera and serious dramaas well as those of burlesque shows.
See Article History Theatre music, any music designed to form part of a dramatic performance, as, for example, a ballet, stage play, motion pictureor television program. Included are the European operetta and its American form, the musical.
Music as an art of the theatre has its roots in primitive ritual and ceremony and its branches in every modern means of theatrical presentation. Its functions are as varied as the forms require and range from being the primary reason for performance, as in opera, to mere noise, filling a vacuum in imagination for some screen and stage presentations.
Theatre music is all music composed to govern, enhanceor support a theatrical conception. Music composed for theatrical purposes obeys different laws than does the music for concert performance or conventional opera.
Whereas in opera the music dictates the form in which the dramatic visual imagery is presented and governs its development, in other kinds of theatre the music is, at best, an equal partner among its principal elements. In concert, of course, the music is the sole factor that determines the experience.
In the West, the concept of music as an intellectual experience for its own sake emerged only in the second half of the 18th century. Theatrical music is variously related to something other than itself, whether as an enrichment of words as in operettaa factor in structure and mood balletor an intensification of situation and feeling as in incidental music for plays and films.
In some instances music is dominant, in some it is subservient, and in operetta or stage musical the emphasis alternates between speech, song, and dance. In opera and spoken drama, in which words are wholly sung or spoken, a convention once set is consistently sustained and thereby creates its own kind of reality.
The constant change of focus in operetta and musical, from music to speech and back again, emphasizes the artificiality of the illusion they seek to create. The classical mainstream of theatre music in the West extends from the midth century to the s, and the instances of drama and music meeting on an equal level of imagination are relatively few.
More frequently great music was lavished on weak or corrupt theatre, or great drama was embellished with indifferent music. From the early 20th century new dramatic developments were seldom directly matched in music. A German-Italian composer, Ferruccio Busoniwrote in The greater part of modern theatre music suffers from the mistake of seeking to repeat the scenes passing on the stage, instead of fulfilling its own proper mission of interpreting the attitudes of the persons represented.
Thereafter, for economic reasons, the dramatic theatre had to equip itself with small-group music or prerecorded tapes. The orchestra and chorus became the prerogative of stage musicals and films. Producers of stage musicals, the choreographers of dance, and the directors of drama need to be wary of the properties of music.
It is more demanding of attention than is often thought, and its use should ideally be confined to circumstances where it can provide something that none of the other theatrical elements can offer. The more its qualities are understood and respected, the better it can be guided to an effective theatrical purpose.
Music for ballet During the 20th century the element of music in all forms of ballet has changed and developed its significance to an unprecedented extent. It has acquired the status of an equal partner with the choreography, where once it was entirely the servant of the ballet master.
In the 19th century he asked little more than that the music should decorate his ballets prettily and give rhythmic support to the movements of the dancers.
His modern successors have been made aware that the highest level of balletic achievement now requires the music and choreography to become extensions of each other, to be heard and seen on equal levels of perception.
The finest modern choreographers are not content simply to ride the surface of their chosen music, whether it is specially written, borrowed, or adapted. They seek to exploit the relationship of eye and ear, recognizing that the effect of any danced step can be changed by the stress of the musical rhythmthe degree of loud or soft in its dynamicsthe nature of its harmonic character, and the expressive quality of its instrumental timbre.
All these factors can make a positive contribution to the balletic image, and they give coherence to the sequence of movement as they merge into its continuous momentum. Until the end of the 19th century, each new ballet customarily had music specially composed for it, but it was rare for any composer of distinction to write ballet music, unless it was part of an opera.
Stravinsky was the dominating figure for nearly half a century beginning in in composing music for ballet. He gained international acclaim with the first products of his collaboration with the Ballets Russes of the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev: The first two continue to be performed in their original choreography by Michel Fokinealso a Russian, each with a narrative basis illustrated in music notable for its expressive colour and harmonic innovations.
Distinctive original scores for ballet continued usually to be the outcome of specific commissions.Writing a theater review begins long before the first word is typed on the screen. Research the show and the production you are reviewing. Read the press releases from the theater company and any previews to learn whether the production is attempting to achieve something specific.
How to Write an Article Review How to Write an Article Review. Sep 07, Types of Academic Writing. An Article Review is a critical, constructive evaluation of literature in a particular field through summary, classification, analysis, and comparison.
Post-Writing Process; Example; What Is An Article Review.
An article review is a type. On December 21, , Barack Obama wrote a short review of William Ayers’ book A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court, which had recently been published by Beacon benjaminpohle.com’s a photo of how the review appeared in the Chicago Tribune: (Bloggers, journalists and media members are all free to re-post this image with no restrictions.
Oct 16, · How to Write a Theatre Biography. In this Article: Article Summary Conforming to Bio Writing Standards Including the Crucial Information Including Optional Information Sample Theatre Bios Community Q&A If you're involved in a musical or play, you may be asked to write a biography (“bio”) about yourself for the show's playbill.
Theatre was introduced from Europe to what is now the United Kingdom by the Romans and auditoriums were constructed across the country for this purpose (an example has been excavated at Verulamium).By the medieval period theatre had developed with the mummers' plays, a form of early street theatre associated with the Morris dance, concentrating on themes such as Saint George and .
Easier - A play is a story that is written to be acted on a stage or in a theater.A skit is a short play that is usually performed in a more informal setting like a club meeting or a classroom.