Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families Collected tribute in the barangay Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period Position was made elective in ; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay.
This is the eternal fate of taxation: Political spin has just as long a history as taxation, and neither has been detained unduly by the meaning of words.
The written record China has one of the longest of all written records, and we know that taxes were levied here some 3, years ago as the Empire was being established. Powers usually military that were able to impose taxes created the first bureaucracies to collect and administer them.
The city states of Ancient Greece imposed eishpora to pay for wars, which were numerous; but once a war was over any surplus had to be refunded.
Athens imposed a monthly poll tax on foreigners. Imperial Rome used tribute extracted from colonized peoples to multiply the bounty of empire. Julius Caesar imposed a one-per-cent sales tax; Augustus instituted an inheritance tax to provide retirement funds for the military.
However, human bondage remained the most lucrative form of tribute for both Greece and Rome.
Religious institutions rivalled — and sometimes surpassed — political ones in their material power. To secure this, they imposed forms of taxation. Tithe barns for the receipt and storage of such payments were lesser in size only to churches in villages and towns.
In India, Islamic rulers imposed a tax called jizya in the 11th century. In Latin America the Aztec, Olmec, Maya and Inca cultures all seem to have raised forms of taxation, usually in association with ritual observance. Both Hindus and Buddhists sustained their temples and monasteries with contributions of time, skill and resources from the faithful.
Doomsday Land was the basic commodity of feudal Europe and service military or labour its currency. Then the Vikings, sailing from Scandinavia, started demanding protection money.
In they extorted six tons of silver in return for not sacking Paris; in a similar amount from London. Imperial measures More modern systems of taxation followed the expansion of imperial Europe, together with towns and cities, where tribute in kind was less useful — cash was the currency here.
The monarchies of Spain and Portugal, however, still transposed feudal structures, and an obsession with gold — which was portable — to their occupation of Latin America.
Others followed the example of the city states of Italy, particularly Venice, which had grown rich on trade with the East; taxes on trade were relatively easy to raise. France, the Netherlands and Britain in particular began to establish commercial outposts, and then military control, across Africa and Asia.
Traditions of tribute through human bondage revived, however, with the triangular slave trade between Africa, Europe and the Americas. In Britain, a disagreement on the rights of taxation between Parliament and King Charles I in led to civil war. Nation states Advert Resentment of tax fuelled the French Revolution between and Thereafter, Napoleon centralized the tax system and employed private collectors who could keep a proportion of their takings.
Revolt against taxation — levied from imperial Britain — also fuelled the formation of the United States, though an independent Congress soon enacted the Federal Property Tax in By now, no aspiring nation, in Europe or elsewhere, could dispense with the machinery of a state or the taxes to pay for it.
Promises, promises As the power of monarchies declined and of industrial capitalism increased, a new settlement was required. This was pioneered in Britain.
Income tax was first imposed on personal wealth in Britain into pay for the wars with Napoleon. A year after the Battle of Waterloo in it was repealed. In the general election of Sir Robert Peel opposed income tax, but once elected he reimposed it, reducing customs duties at the same time.
In the general election ofboth Gladstone and Disraeli opposed income tax. Disraeli won, but the tax stayed.Philippines: Philippines, island country of Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is an archipelago consisting of some 7, islands and islets lying about miles ( km) off the coast of Vietnam.
Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s most-populous city. The policy of taxation in the Philippines is governed chiefly by the Constitution of the Philippines and three Republic Acts..
Constitution: Article VI, Section 28 of the Constitution states that "the rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable" and that "Congress shall evolve a progressive system of taxation." national law: National Internal Revenue Code—enacted as Republic Act No.
|He was the Chief Arbitrator whose decisions on financial matters were final except when revoked by the Council of Indies.|
|Prehistory of the Philippines Docking station and entrance to the Tabon Cave Complex Site in Palawanwhere one of the oldest human remains was located. Discovery in of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the country to as early asyears.|
Philippines - Martial law: In September Marcos declared martial law, claiming that it was the last defense against the rising disorder caused by increasingly violent student demonstrations, the alleged threats of communist insurgency by the new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), and the Muslim separatist movement of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF).
The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 67, years ago as the discovery of Callao Man suggested.
Negrito groups first inhabited the isles. Groups of Austronesians later migrated to the islands.. Scholars generally believe that these social groups eventually developed into various settlements or polities.
History of Taxation in the Philippines Pre – Colonial Period( – ) Government were called “Barangays” No national government There was no “datu” strong enough to unite the archipelago into one nation.
Some barangays however united to form a confederation.
It was headed by a /5(5). History of Taxation in the Philippines Pre – Colonial Period( – ) Government were called “ Barangays ” No national government There was no “ datu ” .