Gender inequality in India Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8.
The generally accepted notion is that Hindi grade 9 was a purely sanskritised Hindu language at first that took significant influence from invading Persian empires. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties.
The term Hindustani Persian: The more highly Persianised version later established as a language of the court was called Rekhtaor "mixed". As an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India.
Written in the Persian alphabet or Devanagari it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India for the next four centuries although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside Persian, in Muslim courts.
Its development was centred on the poets of the Mughal courts of cities in Uttar Pradesh such as Delhi, Lucknowand Agra.
John Fletcher Hurst in his book published in mentioned that the Hindustani or camp language of the Mughal Empire 's courts at Delhi was not regarded by philologists as distinct language but only as a dialect of Hindi with admixture of Persian.
Next to English it was the official language of British Rajwas commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately , people. They developed it as the language of administration of British India further preparing it to be the official language of modern India and Pakistan.
However, with independence, use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific.
More recently, the word 'Hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of Bollywood films, which are popular in both India and Pakistan and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi or Urdu. Hindi—Urdu controversy and Register sociolinguistics Although, at the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary ; where literary Hindi draws heavily on Sanskrit and to a lesser extent Prakritliterary Urdu draws heavily on Persian and Arabic.
The grammar and base vocabulary most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc.
The standardised registers Hindi and Urdu are collectively known as Hindi-Urdu. Hindustani is perhaps the lingua franca of the north and west of the Indian subcontinentthough it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas.
This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both Hindi and Urdu speakers.
Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the Hindustani closer to Urdu or to Hindi.
One might reasonably assume that the Hindustani spoken in LucknowUttar Pradesh known for its usage of Urdu and Varanasi a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly Sanskritised Hindi is somewhat different.
Modern Standard Hindi[ edit ] Main article: Hindi Standard Hindi, one of the official languages of Indiais based on the Kharibol dialect of the Delhi region and differs from Urdu in that it is usually written in the indigenous Devanagari of India and exhibits less Persian and Arabic influence than Urdu.
It has a literature of years, with prose, poetry, religion and philosophy, under the Bahmani Kings and onwards. It is prevalent all over the Deccan Plateau.Hindi Comprehension Worksheets for Grade 2 Worksheet No.
9. 1. अवतरण के आधार पर निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर दीजिए –.
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