Rousseau left the city at the age of sixteen and came under the influence of a Roman Catholic convert noblewoman, Francoise-Louise de la Tour, Baronne de Warens. Rousseau spent some time working as a domestic servant in a noble household in Turin, and during this time a shameful episode occurred in which he falsely accused a fellow servant of the theft of a ribbon. This act marked him deeply and he returns to it in his autobiographical works. Rousseau then spent a brief period training to become a Catholic priest before embarking on another brief career as an itinerant musician, music copyist and teacher.
During the European Renaissanceartistic depictions of children increased dramatically, which did not impact the social attitude to children much, however. The English philosopher John Locke was particularly influential in defining this new attitude towards children, especially with regard to his theory of the tabula rasawhich considered the mind at birth to be a "blank slate".
A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank, and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. During the early period of capitalismthe rise of a large, commercial middle class, mainly in the Protestant countries of the Dutch Republic and Englandbrought about a new family ideology centred around the upbringing of children.
Puritanism stressed the importance of individual salvation and concern for the spiritual welfare of children. Reynolds emphasized the natural grace of children in his paintings The modern notion of childhood with its own autonomy and goals began to emerge during the 18th century Enlightenment and the Romantic period that followed it.
Building on the ideas of John Locke and other 17th-century thinkers, Jean-Jaques Rousseau described childhood as a brief period of sanctuary before people encounter the perils and hardships of adulthood. His painting The Age of Innocenceemphasizes the innocence and natural grace of the posing child and soon became a public favourite.
By the late 18th century, British children were specially employed in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps often working long hours in dangerous jobs for low pay. British reformers attacked child labor from the s onward, bolstered by the horrific descriptions of London street life by Charles Dickens.
Nepalese children playing with cats. Harari girls in Ethiopia. The modern attitude to children emerged by the late 19th century; the Victorian middle and upper classes emphasized the role of the family and the sanctity of the child, — an attitude that has remained dominant in Western societies ever since.
Lewis Carroll 's fantasy Alice's Adventures in Wonderlandpublished in in England, was a landmark in the genre; regarded as the first "English masterpiece written for children", its publication opened the "First Golden Age" of children's literature.
The latter half of the 19th century saw the introduction of compulsory state schooling of children across Europe, which decisively removed children from the workplace into schools.
Factory-made dolls and doll houses delighted the girls and organized sports and activities were played by the boys. In he published a study of paintings, gravestones, furniture, and school records, finding that before the 17th-century, children were represented as mini- adults.
Since then, historians have increasingly researched childhood in past times. Some believe that children should not have any worries and should not have to work; life should be happy and trouble-free. Childhood is usually a mixture of happiness, wonder, angst and resilience.
It is generally a time of playing, learning, socializing, exploring, and worrying in a world without much adult interference, aside from parents. It is a time of learning about responsibilities without having to deal with adult responsibilities.
It is usually thought of as an experience or period in a child's life that widens their awareness of evil, pain or the world around them. The fictional character Peter Pan was the embodiment of a childhood that never ends.
Geographies of childhood[ edit ] The geographies of childhood involves how adult society perceives the idea of childhood, the many ways adult attitudes and behaviors affect children's lives, including the environment which surrounds children and its implications.
Nature deficit disorder Nature Deficit Disorder, a term coined by Richard Louv in his book Last Child in the Woodsrefers to the trend in the United States and Canada towards less time for outdoor play,   resulting in a wide range of behavioral problems.The Age of Innocence movie Essay example Words 3 Pages It's New York City in the s, a society ruled by expectations and propriety, where a hint of immorality can bring scandal and ruin.
The Difference Between Innocence and Experience in Poetry "The idyllic world of Innocence is exposed as naÃve and foolish by the subversive cynicism of Experience." The world of Innocence is happy and loving, and can be compared to Arcadia and the Garden of .
The world of Innocence is happy and loving, and can be compared to Arcadia and the Garden of Eden, the place of true innocence and lack of knowledge. However, Experience is actual reality of what living in the real world is actually like, where people have experienced the problems in the world. A contradiction emerges between Disney's cutthroat commercial ethos and the Disney culture, which presents itself as a paragon of virtue and childlike innocence.
Disney has built its reputation on both profitability and wholesome entertainment, largely removed from issues of power, politics, and ideology. Violent innocence is a form of denial that comes, in part, from the individual’s need to be free: of unwanted feelings, of troubling recognitions, of fears and anxieties, and of others.
Developmentally and biologically, it refers to the period between infancy and adulthood.
In common terms, childhood is considered to start from birth, and as a .