Theoretical approaches are an understandably integral part of the therapeutic process.
Parental behavior is crucial to normal and abnormal development. Personality and mental health problems in adulthood can usually be traced back to the first five years. Sources of pleasure are determined by the location of the libido life-force.
As a child moves through different developmental stagesthe location of the libido, and hence sources of pleasure, change Freud, Environmental and parental experiences during childhood influence an individual's personality during adulthood.
For example, during the first two years of life, the infant who is neglected insufficiently fed or who is over-protected over-fed might become an orally-fixated person Freud, Tripartite Theory of Personality Freud saw the personality structured into three parts i.
These are systems, not parts of the brain, or in any way physical. The id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality.
It consists of all the inherited i. It operates on the pleasure principle Freud, which is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences. The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world like a referee.
The ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others.
It is similar to a conscience, which can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt. Traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation.
This means that traits should remain consistent across situations and over time, but may vary between individuals. It is presumed that individuals differ in their traits due to genetic differences.
These theories are sometimes referred to a psychometric theories, because of their emphasis on measuring personality by using psychometric tests. Trait scores are continuous quantitative variables. A person is given numeric score to indicate how much of a trait the they possess. During s Eysenck was working at the Maudsley psychiatric hospital in London.
His job was to make an initial assessment of each patient before their mental disorder was diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Through this position, he compiled a battery of questions about behavior, which he later applied to soldiers who were being treated for neurotic disorders at the hospital Eysenck He found that the soldiers' answers seemed to link naturally with one another, suggesting that there were a number of different personality traits which were being revealed by the soldier's answers.
He called these first-order personality traits He used a technique called factor analysis. This technique reduces behavior to a number of factors which can be grouped together under separate headings, called dimensions. Eysenck found that their behavior could be represented by two dimensions: Eysenck called these second-order personality traits.
Each aspect of personality extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism can be traced back to a different biological cause. Personality is dependent on the balance between excitation and inhibition process of the autonomic nervous system ANS. They tend to be carefree, optimistic and impulsive.In a ﬂ exible use of narrative analysis I employed different models of narrative I used different approaches to analyse narratives I located within the data.
These included 8 Chapter 1 Qualitative Research in Psychology of understanding the data, and to . Different approaches to psychotherapy Psychologists generally draw on one or more theories of psychotherapy. A theory of psychotherapy acts as a roadmap for psychologists: It guides them through the process of understanding clients and their problems and developing solutions.
Quantitative psychology involves the application of statistical analysis to psychological research, and the development of novel statistical approaches for measuring and explaining human behavior.
It is a young field (only recently have Ph.D. programs in quantitative psychology been formed), and it is loosely comprised of the subfields. Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. But with so many different methods out there, how do you know which counseling approach works best for you?
such as free association (freely talking to the therapist about whatever comes up without censoring), dream analysis (examining dreams for important information about the unconscious), and. Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is the sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies on discourse analysis in the social sciences.
Thus, in modern European social sciences, one can find a wide range of different approaches working with Foucault's definition of discourse and.
5 Major Perspectives in Psychology. Psychology is the As psychology progressed, it began to tackle the question of why we do what we do from different angles, including: biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and humanistic perspectives.
Let's look at each of these five main approaches that guide modern psychological research.