References and Further Reading 1.
References and Further Reading 1. Pyrrhonian Skepticism The distinction between Academic and Pyrrhonian skepticism continues to be a controversial topic.
In the Second Century C.
The biggest obstacle to correctly making this distinction is that it is misleading to describe Academic and Pyrrhonian skepticism as distinctly unified views in the first place since different Academics and Pyrrhonists seem to have understood their skepticisms in different ways. So even though the terms Academic and Pyrrhonian are appropriate insofar as there are clear lines of transmission and development of skeptical views that unify each, we should not expect to find a simple account of the distinction between the two.
Arcesilaus Following Plato's death in B. Next in line were Xenocrates, Polemo and Crates.
The efforts of the Academics during this period were largely directed towards developing an orthodox Platonic metaphysics. When Crates died c.
Arcesilaus of Pitane c. Another member of the Academy, Socratides, who was apparently in line for the position, stepped down in favor of Arcesilaus Diogenes Laertius [DL] 4. See Long  for discussion of the life of Arcesilaus. Platonic Innovator According to Diogenes Laertius, Arcesilaus was "the first to argue on both sides of a question, and the first to meddle with the traditional Platonic system [or: Diogenes is certainly wrong about Arcesilaus being the first to argue on both sides of a question.
This was a long standing practice in Greek rhetoric commonly attributed to the Sophists. This transition was probably supported by an innovative reading of Plato's books, which he possessed and held in high regard DL 4.
Diogenes' remark that Arcesilaus "meddled" with Plato's system and made it more of a debating contest indicates a critical attitude towards his innovations. Diogenes or his source apparently thought that Arcesilaus betrayed the spirit of Platonic philosophy by turning it to skepticism.
Cicero, on the other hand, in an approving tone, reports that Arcesilaus revived the practice of Socrates, which he takes to be the same as Plato's. This practice was not kept up by his successors; but Arcesilaus revived it and prescribed that those who wanted to listen to him should not ask him questions but state their own opinions.
When they had done so, he argued against them.
But his listeners, so far as they could, would defend their own opinion" de Finibus 2.Select a course after choosing a department Select a section after choosing a course No Courses Selected! Academic Dishonesty: Internet Cheating AET/ August 19, Dr. Gregory W.
Dlabach, Ed.D Academic Dishonesty Academic dishonesty is an “intentional act of fraud” by which a student claims credit for the work of another without authorization (Pincus & Schmelkin, ).
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Education rules concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (curriculum standards) for high school English language arts and reading. Online training courseware for IT certifications and Microsoft Office Specialist Certifications. Glatt Academic Integrity Consulting.
Academic integrity speaks to the heart of the educational process. Plagiarism undermines learning and the purposes of our academic institutions.